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Viagra is often the first line of treatment to manage the symptoms of a common condition in men known as erectile dysfunction, also known as impotency. As the name suggests, it is a condition that refers to the inability of the sufferer to maintain an erection required for performing sexual intercourse. Now the severity of this ailment may vary from person to person. Some patients suffer from what can be referred to as complete disability to achieve an erection. While there are people who may manage to get an erection, but not hard enough to make a penetration. And then there are some men who come up with this complaint that although, they are able to get an erection and penetration as well, they cannot sustain it for long thus, eventually losing it. Having any of these problems from time to time, is not a cause of concern. However, if it is a chronic problem, then medical intervention becomes a necessity.

tadalafil cheap In order to understand how Viagra works, it is beneficial to understand the basic facts about erection. As a response to an act of sexual arousal, the brain communicates nerve signals, which are also sent from the penis. These signals cause the secretion of a chemical (nitric oxide) in the body that works to induce a relaxing effect in the muscles of the penis. These muscles, otherwise, stay in a constricted state. This is to stop blood from flowing into the penis. But when the muscles get relaxed, a large amount of blood gushes in the nerves of the penis resulting in an erection. Now this erection is lost when another chemical (phosphodiesterase type 5) is produced by the body to cease the effect of the nitric oxide. When this chemical is released, blood flow is stopped, and the penis loses its erection, and becomes flaccid.

Now what Viagra does is, it hampers the function of phosphodiesterase type 5 thus, enhancing the function of nitric oxide. When the later chemical remains in a larger quantity, the blood flow to the organ increases thus, preventing the muscles from constricting. And in this way, depending on the strength of the drug, the erection can be maintained for a longer period.

order viagra online australia The rate at which the drug works may not be the same with every man. Some may be able to achieve a quick erection, which of course has to be stimulated first. While some may have to wait for a little while. However, the drug, as it has been studied under clinical trials, starts showing its effectiveness in about 14 minutes. Also, some achieved erection after as long as 30 minutes of using the drug.

On an average, the effect of the medicine remains for about a couple of hours. Four hours is the time for which the drug is supposed to work though.

As it is with any type of medicines, you must be aware of the probable side effects of Viagra too. The common ones may include:

Medical experts have laid down a few precautions to be followed by people before using the drug. It is not safe to use the medication if:

To conclude, it is important to understand that merely taking Viagra does not cause erection. For the medicine to work, the chemical nitric oxide needs to be released first, and the blood flow has to be initiated. The drug only helps in maintaining the chemical for a longer period of time thus, keeping the erection prolonged.

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The Question of Praxis in Adorno’s Critical Theory

“Correct revolutionary theory… assumes final shape only in connection with the practical activity of a truly mass and truly revolutionary movement.” Lenin


“What is the meaning of practice if there is no longer a party? In that case doesn’t practice mean either reformism or quietism?” Horkheimer



1. Western Marxism: A Senile Disorder


In a defense of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1920, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin set out three conditions, which he thought necessary to the successful achievement of its aim “to overthrow the bourgeoisie and transform the whole of society”. These conditions were: first, the class-consciousness of the revolutionary vanguard, and its devotion to the revolution; second, its ability to maintain contact and even merge with the proletariat and “the non-proletarian masses of working people”; and third, the correctness of its leadership and its “political strategy and tactics”. In other words, there is a virtuous circle between correct theory and revolutionary praxis that is mediated by the revolutionary vanguard’s connection with the mass of working people, a unity which Lenin notes, is not a dogmatic and external imposition, but an endogenous development of “correct revolutionary theory…which assumes final shape only in connection with the practical activity of a truly mass and truly revolutionary movement”. Perry Anderson takes this sentence from Lenin as motto and conclusion to his   Considerations on Western Marxism, a book which perfectly exemplifies the Marxist left’s assessment of the Frankfurt School’s attitude to praxis, and of Adorno’s in particular.


In Lenin Anderson sees “organic unity of theory and practice”from which lofty summit leads the meandering downward trail to the politically desert plains of Western Marxism. Western Marxism, according to Anderson, is a crippled and impotent descendent of an earlier more vigorous ancestor. In general, he claims that Western Marxists were academics, preoccupied with questions of method, who consoled themselves for their alienation from politics by writing about aesthetics and culture, rather than matters political and economic substance. Their work was the product of “defeat” and “political isolation and despair”.  According to Anderson, this was less true of the earlier generation, for example Lukács, who still had experience, of party politics, than it was of the later generation, who did not. It is the later generation, to which Adorno belongs, that marks decline and fall of Marxist theory from praxis. With them Marxism “migrated virtually completely into the universities – precincts at once of refuge and exile from the political struggles in the world outside.”As professional philosophers they had an unhealthy interest in Hegel, and while this was “not necessarily a philosophical recidivism” they inevitably came under the bad influence of idealist and religious theories.Adorno in particular was “saturated with Hegelian influence” and as a result his Marxism “represented, by the sixties, an extreme version of its renunciation of any discourse on classes or politics.”The caricature, which is familiar to anyone with a passing knowledge of critical theory, is of Adorno performing deathly feats of dialectical abstraction, and writing tortuous sentences about avant-garde music and literature, uninterested in participating in any political activities that might actually be effective in bringing about the transformation of the society he criticized.  Not only has the caricature stuck, so has the summary judgment of Adorno’s critical theory as crippled by a relentless pessimism with regard to the prospects for political change, “pessimism as quiescence”. Read more

University Lectures are Over, says Donald Clarke. But he would say that wouldn’t he?

Just read an article in the Guardian Education called “Ten reasons we should ditch university lectures” by Donald Clark, the Chief Exec of an e-learning company. Here are some of his claims, followed by my responses.

DC Here are 10 reasons why face-to-face lectures just don’t work:

GF Here are 10 reasons why the ‘arguments’ put forward by Clarke, in this article, which is really just an advert for his elearning company, which should not be appearing in the Guardian Education) are rubbish.

1. Babylonian hour
We only have hours because of the Babylonian base-60 number system, which first appeared around 3100 BC. But it has nothing to do with the psychology of learning.

1* This applies to clock time in general. It is no argument against lectures which can be as long or short, or staccato or continuous as the lecturer makes them.

2. Passive observers
Lectures without engagement with the audience turn students into passive observers. Research shows that participation increases learning, yet few lecturers do this.

2* Paying attention to what is being said is not ‘passive’ and is an important skill in itself. That said, audiences in a real time lecture don’t have to be passive at all. Lecturers can respond to their audiences. One colleague of mine canvasses tweets and texts from students during the lecture. This kind of spontaneous interaction is not possible in a Video. So online lectures will be worse than real time live lectures in these respects. Read more

Review of Adorno, by Brian O’Connor

Brian O’Connor, Adorno, Routledge, 2013, 219pp., $29.95 (pbk), ISBN 9780415367363.

Hegel, a writer of brilliant introductions, knew that they posed peculiar difficulties. Some of these were due to the absolute pretensions of systematic philosophy, but not all. Introductions, like beginnings, as the German saying goes, are difficult. A good book may not be a good introduction. Anyone who has read Gillian Rose’s brilliant The Melancholy Science: An Introduction to the Thought of Theodor W. Adorno (or, for that matter, Adorno’s own Introduction to the Sociology of Music) will know this.

Introductions such as Brian O’Connor’s Adorno (the latest in The Routledge Philosophers series) are a genre in their own right with their proper demands. One task is to initiate non-expert readers into the world of Adorno, and to make it accessible to the non-specialist without oversimplifying. Another is to give readers an overview of Adorno’s entire work situating each aspect of it in relation to the others. O’Connor meets these demands deftly.

Writing an introduction to a thinker such as Adorno, whose writing is dense and difficult, and whose thought is set out unsystematically and diffused across a number of different texts that do not form a whole, is challenging in particular ways. Just consider the range of subjects his writing embraces: music, philosophy, sociology, literature, psychoanalysis, German politics and society. Though not the grandest polymath of his era, Adorno is nonetheless one of several European public intellectuals of the 20th Century with wide cultural horizons.

Read the full review at Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.